“The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds the most discoveries, is not “Eureka!” (I found it!) but “That’s funny...”
— Isaac Asimov

We utilize a multidisciplinary and translational approach

  • Animal models of disease

  • In-vitro models

  • Reagents

  • Methods & Techniques


Sample book chapters and covers:

Pubmed Publications:

Click here to link to Pubmed for the publications shown below.

Recent Publications Obtained from PubMed (Click on PubMed ID to view abstract)

28359860. Merkel SF, Cannella LA, Razmpour R, Lutton E, Raghupathi R, Rawls SM, Ramirez SH, Factors affecting increased risk for substance use disorders following traumatic brain injury: What we can learn from animal models. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017 Jun;77:209-218

28534661. Sagar D, Singh NP, Ginwala R, Huang X, Philip R, Nagarkatti M, Nagarkatti P, Neumann K, Ruland J, Andrews AM, Ramirez SH, Khan ZK, Jain P, Antibody blockade of CLEC12A delays EAE onset and attenuates disease severity by impairing myeloid cell CNS infiltration and restoring positive immunity. Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 2;7(1):2707

28534661. Andrews AM, Lutton EM, Cannella LA, Reichenbach N, Razmpour R, Seasock MJ, Kaspin SJ, Merkel SF, Langford D, Persidsky Y, Ramirez SH, Characterization of human fetal brain endothelial cells reveals barrier properties suitable for in vitro modeling of the BBB with syngenic co-cultures. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2017 Jan 1:271678X17708690

27983912. Merkel SF, Andrews AM, Lutton EM, Razmpour R, Cannella LA, Ramirez SH, Dexamethasone Attenuates the Enhanced Rewarding Effects of Cocaine Following Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury. J Cell Transplant. 2016 Nov 29

27718541. Merkel SF, Andrews AM, Lutton EM, Mu D, Hudry E, Hyman BT, Maguire CA, Ramirez SH, Trafficking of AAV vectors across a model of the blood-brain barrier; a comparative study of transcytosis and transduction using primary human brain endothelial cells. J Neurochem. 2016 Oct 8

27181909. Kawata K, Liu CY, Merkel SF, Ramirez SH, Tierney RT, Langford D, Blood Biomarkers for Brain Injury: What Are We Measuring?. J Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016 May 12

27117066. Fernandes NC, Sriram U, Gofman L, Cenna JM, Ramirez SH, Potula R, Methamphetamine alters microglial immune function through P2X7R signaling. J Neuroinflammation. 2016 Apr 26;13(1):91

27026056. Merkel SF, Razmpour R, Lutton EM, Tallarida CS, Heldt NA, Cannella LA, Persidsky Y, Rawls SM, Ramirez SH, Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury Induces Chronic Mesolimbic Neuroinflammation with Concurrent Enhancement in the Rewarding Effects of Cocaine in Mice during Adulthood. J Neurotrauma. 2016 Jun 7

26973460. Andrews AM, Lutton EM, Merkel SF, Razmpour R, Ramirez SH, Mechanical Injury Induces Brain Endothelial-Derived Microvesicle Release: Implications for Cerebral Vascular Injury during Traumatic Brain Injury. Front Cell Neurosci. 2016 Feb 29;10:43

26836117. Hudry E, Martin C, Gandhi S, György B, Scheffer DI, Mu D, Merkel SF, Mingozzi F, Fitzpatrick Z, Dimant H, Masek M, Ragan T, Tan S, Brisson AR, Ramirez SH, Hyman BT, Maguire CA, Exosome-associated AAV vector as a robust and convenient neuroscience tool. Gene Ther. 2016 Apr;23(4):380-92

26661157. Persidsky Y, Hill J, Zhang M, Dykstra H, Winfield M, Reichenbach NL, Potula R, Mukherjee A, Ramirez SH, Rom S, Dysfunction of brain pericytes in chronic neuroinflammation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2016 Apr;36(4):794-807

26438054. Wu L, Ramirez SH, Andrews AM, Leung W, Itoh K, Wu J, Arai K, Lo EH, Lok J, Neuregulin1-β decreases interleukin-1β-induced RhoA activation, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and endothelial hyperpermeability. J Neurochem. 2016 Jan;136(2):250-7

26302754. Sriram U, Cenna JM, Haldar B, Fernandes NC, Razmpour R, Fan S, Ramirez SH, Potula R, Methamphetamine induces trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) expression in human T lymphocytes: role in immunomodulation. J Leukoc Biol. 2016 Jan;99(1):213-23

25892136. Watters AK, Rom S, Hill JD, Dematatis MK, Zhou Y, Merkel SF, Andrews AM, Cena J, Potula R, Skuba A, Son YJ, Persidsky Y, Ramirez SH, Identification and Dynamic Regulation of Tight Junction Protein Expression in Human Neural Stem Cells. Stem Cells Dev 24:12(1377-1389)2015 Jun 15

25666933. Persidsky Y, Fan S, Dykstra H, Reichenbach NL, Rom S, Ramirez SH, Activation of Cannabinoid Type Two Receptors (CB2) Diminish Inflammatory Responses in Macrophages and Brain Endothelium. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol :()2015 Feb 11

25248836. Rom S, Zuluaga-Ramirez V, Dykstra H, Reichenbach NL, Ramirez SH, Persidsky Y, Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibition in brain endothelium protects the blood-brain barrier under physiologic and neuroinflammatory conditions. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 35:1(28-36)2015 Jan

25159276. Maguire CA, Ramirez SH, Merkel SF, Sena-Esteves M, Breakefield XO, Gene therapy for the nervous system: challenges and new strategies. Neurotherapeutics 11:4(817-39)2014 Oct

25119834. Hill J, Rom S, Ramirez SH, Persidsky Y, Emerging roles of pericytes in the regulation of the neurovascular unit in health and disease. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 9:5(591-605)2014 Dec

24729609. Singh MV, Davidson DC, Jackson JW, Singh VB, Silva J, Ramirez SH, Maggirwar SB, Characterization of platelet-monocyte complexes in HIV-1-infected individuals: possible role in HIV-associated neuroinflammation. J Immunol 192:10(4674-84)2014 May 15

24146950. Shuvaev VV, Han J, Tliba S, Arguiri E, Christofidou-Solomidou M, Ramirez SH, Dykstra H, Persidsky Y, Atochin DN, Huang PL, Muzykantov VR, Anti-inflammatory effect of targeted delivery of SOD to endothelium: mechanism, synergism with NO donors and protective effects in vitro and in vivo. PLoS One 8:10(e77002)2013

23463725. Ramirez SH, Reichenbach NL, Fan S, Rom S, Merkel SF, Wang X, Ho WZ, Persidsky Y, Attenuation of HIV-1 replication in macrophages by cannabinoid receptor 2 agonists. J Leukoc Biol 93:5(801-10)2013 May

23418486. Ramirez SH, Fan S, Dykstra H, Rom S, Mercer A, Reichenbach NL, Gofman L, Persidsky Y, Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3ß promotes tight junction stability in brain endothelial cells by half-life extension of occludin and claudin-5. PLoS One 8:2(e55972)2013

22863953. Rom S, Fan S, Reichenbach N, Dykstra H, Ramirez SH, Persidsky Y, Glycogen synthase kinase 3ß inhibition prevents monocyte migration across brain endothelial cells via Rac1-GTPase suppression and down-regulation of active integrin conformation. Am J Pathol 181:4(1414-25)2012 Oct

22442067. Ramirez SH, Haskó J, Skuba A, Fan S, Dykstra H, McCormick R, Reichenbach N, Krizbai I, Mahadevan A, Zhang M, Tuma R, Son YJ, Persidsky Y, Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 attenuates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and blood-brain barrier dysfunction under inflammatory conditions. J Neurosci 32:12(4004-16)2012 Mar 21

21940748. Ye L, Wang X, Li J, Liu J, Ramirez SH, Wu J, Ho W, Tetherin has negligible activity in restricting hepatitis C virus in hepatocytes. Innate Immun 18:3(398-405)2012 Jun

21397004. Persidsky Y, Ho W, Ramirez SH, Potula R, Abood ME, Unterwald E, Tuma R, HIV-1 infection and alcohol abuse: neurocognitive impairment, mechanisms of neurodegeneration and therapeutic interventions. Brain Behav Immun 25 Suppl 1:(S61-70)2011 Jun

20870012. Zhang M, Mao Y, Ramirez SH, Tuma RF, Chabrashvili T, Angiotensin II induced cerebral microvascular inflammation and increased blood-brain barrier permeability via oxidative stress. Neuroscience 171:3(852-8)2010 Dec 15

20668216. Potula R, Hawkins BJ, Cenna JM, Fan S, Dykstra H, Ramirez SH, Morsey B, Brodie MR, Persidsky Y, Methamphetamine causes mitrochondrial oxidative damage in human T lymphocytes leading to functional impairment. J Immunol 185:5(2867-76)2010 Sep 1

20631174. Ramirez SH, Fan S, Dykstra H, Reichenbach N, Del Valle L, Potula R, Phipps RP, Maggirwar SB, Persidsky Y, Dyad of CD40/CD40 ligand fosters neuroinflammation at the blood-brain barrier and is regulated via JNK signaling: implications for HIV-1 encephalitis. J Neurosci 30:28(9454-64)2010 Jul 14

20595955. Bernas MJ, Cardoso FL, Daley SK, Weinand ME, Campos AR, Ferreira AJ, Hoying JB, Witte MH, Brites D, Persidsky Y, Ramirez SH, Brito MA, Establishment of primary cultures of human brain microvascular endothelial cells to provide an in vitro cellular model of the blood-brain barrier. Nat Protoc 5:7(1265-72)2010 Jul

20056834. Ramirez SH, Fan S, Zhang M, Papugani A, Reichenbach N, Dykstra H, Mercer AJ, Tuma RF, Persidsky Y, Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) decreases inflammatory responses in brain endothelial cells. Am J Pathol 176:2(881-92)2010 Feb

19654589. Ramirez SH, Potula R, Fan S, Eidem T, Papugani A, Reichenbach N, Dykstra H, Weksler BB, Romero IA, Couraud PO, Persidsky Y, Methamphetamine disrupts blood-brain barrier function by induction of oxidative stress in brain endothelial cells. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 29:12(1933-45)2009 Dec

19034671. Gendelman HE, Ding S, Gong N, Liu J, Ramirez SH, Persidsky Y, Mosley RL, Wang T, Volsky DJ, Xiong H, Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 regulates voltage-gated K+ channels and macrophage transmigration. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 4:1(47-59)2009 Mar

18845238. Haorah J, Ramirez SH, Floreani N, Gorantla S, Morsey B, Persidsky Y, Mechanism of alcohol-induced oxidative stress and neuronal injury. Free Radic Biol Med 45:11(1542-50)2008 Dec 1

18670212. Potula R, Ramirez SH, Knipe B, Leibhart J, Schall K, Heilman D, Morsey B, Mercer A, Papugani A, Dou H, Persidsky Y, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation suppresses HIV-1 replication in an animal model of encephalitis. AIDS 22:13(1539-49)2008 Aug 20

18209083. Ramirez SH, Heilman D, Morsey B, Potula R, Haorah J, Persidsky Y, Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) suppresses Rho GTPases in human brain microvascular endothelial cells and inhibits adhesion and transendothelial migration of HIV-1 infected monocytes. J Immunol 180:3(1854-65)2008 Feb 1

18187566. Yamamoto M, Ramirez SH, Sato S, Kiyota T, Cerny RL, Kaibuchi K, Persidsky Y, Ikezu T, Phosphorylation of claudin-5 and occludin by rho kinase in brain endothelial cells. Am J Pathol 172:2(521-33)2008 Feb

18040800. Persidsky Y, Ramirez SH, Haorah J, Kanmogne GD, Blood-brain barrier: structural components and function under physiologic and pathologic conditions. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 1:3(223-36)2006 Sep

17948266. Liu J, Johnson TV, Lin J, Ramirez SH, Bronich TK, Caplan S, Persidsky Y, Gendelman HE, Kipnis J, T cell independent mechanism for copolymer-1-induced neuroprotection. Eur J Immunol 37:11(3143-54)2007 Nov

17943953. Haorah J, Schall K, Ramirez SH, Persidsky Y, Activation of protein tyrosine kinases and matrix metalloproteinases causes blood-brain barrier injury: Novel mechanism for neurodegeneration associated with alcohol abuse. Glia 56:1(78-88)2008 Jan 1

17250680. Haorah J, Ramirez SH, Schall K, Smith D, Pandya R, Persidsky Y, Oxidative stress activates protein tyrosine kinase and matrix metalloproteinases leading to blood-brain barrier dysfunction. J Neurochem 101:2(566-76)2007 Apr

16154247. Maguire CA, Sapinoro R, Girgis N, Rodriguez-Colon SM, Ramirez SH, Williams J, Dewhurst S, Recombinant adenovirus type 5 vectors that target DC-SIGN, ChemR23 and alpha(v)beta3 integrin efficiently transduce human dendritic cells and enhance presentation of vectored antigens. Vaccine 24:5(671-82)2006 Jan 30

15737413. Fan S, Maguire CA, Ramirez SH, Bradel-Tretheway B, Sapinoro R, Sui Z, Chakraborty-Sett S, Dewhurst S, Valproic acid enhances gene expression from viral gene transfer vectors. J Virol Methods 125:1(23-33)2005 Apr

15548427. Fan S, Ramirez SH, Garcia TM, Dewhurst S, Dishevelled promotes neurite outgrowth in neuronal differentiating neuroblastoma 2A cells, via a DIX-domain dependent pathway. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 132:1(38-50)2004 Dec 6

15233744. Kovács AD, Chakraborty-Sett S, Ramirez SH, Sniderhan LF, Williamson AL, Maggirwar SB, Mechanism of NF-kappaB inactivation induced by survival signal withdrawal in cerebellar granule neurons. Eur J Neurosci 20:2(345-52)2004 Jul

15211592. Ramirez SH, Fan S, Maguire CA, Perry S, Hardiek K, Ramkumar V, Gelbard HA, Dewhurst S, Maggirwar SB, Activation of adenosine A2A receptor protects sympathetic neurons against nerve growth factor withdrawal. J Neurosci Res 77:2(258-69)2004 Jul 15

11520908. Ramirez SH, Sanchez JF, Dimitri CA, Gelbard HA, Dewhurst S, Maggirwar SB, Neurotrophins prevent HIV Tat-induced neuronal apoptosis via a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-dependent mechanism. J Neurochem 78:4(874-89)2001 Aug

11403684. Tong N, Sanchez JF, Maggirwar SB, Ramirez SH, Guo H, Dewhurst S, Gelbard HA, Activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3beta) by platelet activating factor mediates migration and cell death in cerebellar granule neurons. Eur J Neurosci 13:10(1913-22)2001 May

10646503. Maggirwar SB, Ramirez S, Tong N, Gelbard HA, Dewhurst S, Functional interplay between nuclear factor-kappaB and c-Jun integrated by coactivator p300 determines the survival of nerve growth factor-dependent PC12 cells. J Neurochem 74:2(527-39)2000 Feb

10428053. Maggirwar SB, Tong N, Ramirez S, Gelbard HA, Dewhurst S, HIV-1 Tat-mediated activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta contributes to Tat-mediated neurotoxicity. J Neurochem 73:2(578-86)1999 Aug